Transformations: Historical Precedents and Social-spatial Diagnosis of the Villa 21-24

By Santiago Bozzola, Carolina Maglioni, Carolina Mera, Julia Nesprias, Ileana Versace
Facultad de Ciencias Sociales (FSOC) and Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo (FADU) Universidad de Buenos Aires

This essay abords the historical background of the habitat treatment of the most vulnerable social sectors in the city and Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (AMBA) from 1880 to the present day, and proposes a socio-spatial diagnosis of Villa 21-24.
The historical background was analyzed from the environmental, policies and market logic perspectives. Each of these perspectives required different spatial scope and temporary limits. For the environmental approach, taking into account the territory of influence of the Matanza-Riachuelo River basin, since the capitalization of Buenos Aires until the creation of ACUMAR. In the public policies scope, we studied those oriented towards the ownership regularization and re-urbanization of slums, since the advent of democracy until the present, on the national and municipal levels. Market logics were linked to the dynamics of population growth of Villa 21-24 in the last decade.
Social diagnosis was made with data from the two most recent national censuses (2001-2010), with special emphasis on housing variables. On the other hand, the spatial diagnosis included the description of: location and connectivity to the city and the AMBA; the internal neighborhood structure of the slum; and services infrastructure. We also open discussions about the role of the actors involved in the process of redevelopment, and possible guidelines for project mechanisms for the urban integration of the villa.
Finally, we pose the emerging conflicts in each of the studied dimensions, and the main challenges to be faced by the inhabitants, social organizations, the State and professionals, in the design of policies, programs and projects, that can guarantee broad access to the city.


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